Ardaloedd Iwerddon

1. County Dublin

1. County Dublin

Map Lleoliad

Geology

The oldest rocks in the Dublin Area are the hard quartzites that make up Bray Head and Howth: originally sandstones deposited during the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago in the ancient Iapetus Ocean. As the Iapetus Ocean began to close less than 500 million years ago during the Ordovician, volcanic rocks were formed, now found around Balbriggan and Lambay Island. Eventually the Iapetus closed about 400 million years ago during the Devonian and the mountain building event that occurred (the Caledonian Orogeny) caused large masses of granite to form deep in the crust, today forming the Dublin Mountains and Dalkey Island/Killiney Hill. By the early Carboniferous about 350 millsion years ago, the Caldeonian mountains were eroded and a shallow sea covered much of the area around Dublin, depositing limestone found throughout the county. Later geological periods have left no record in the current rock sequences of Dublin, but in the Quaternary Period, staring 1.6 million years ago, ice sheets repeatedly covered the area, eroding rocks and depositing sand and mud. Following retreat of the last ice sheet, many of the current beaches and spits were formed as sea-levels began to stabilise about 5000 years ago.

Bremore

Oblique aerial photograph of Bremore in North Couty Dublin, containing several passage tombs and later a 15th Century settlement
Oblique aerial photograph of Bremore in North Couty Dublin, containing several passage tombs and later a 15th Century settlement

Bremore Point in north County Dublin is famous for its prehistoric passage grave complex of five mounds overlooking the Irish Sea.  Bremore megalithic cemetery is located on an eroding headland which consists of 5 Passage tombs, a Mound, a Barrow and a Fulacht Fia. The sea is encroaching on this megalithic cemetery, as striped bedrock is exposed in close proximity to this megalithic complex. The central mound is also the largest mound at 29m in diameter, twice the diameter of the smaller tombs. In the 1940’s the Board of Works took stone from one of the stone mounds to paint Eire in white along the cliff edge of the headland-as part of the Emergency Defences.

The fisher town and harbour of Newhaven was established sometime after 1562, Newhaven is documented on the Down Survey (1655-6) parish and barony maps as a secure harbour for boats and is a considerable place for fishing. The harbour site consists of a substantial dry stone constructed pier and an area of cleared foreshore for pulling up or landing boats. In the mid 17th century, records show the village as comprising up to 10 houses and with a population of 34 people. A customs station was located at Newhaven from at least 1684 onwards to monitor the coastline and to try and control the illegal importation and exportation of goods. Newhaven is depicted on Duncan’s 1821 map of Dublin and therefore may have continued in use as a harbour throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Newhaven is not recorded on the 1st OS 6′ map and therefore appears to have gone out of use by this time. The pier acts as the main visible surface evidence of this fishing town today. The pier arcs in a SW-NE direction from the sandy bay forming a narrow harbour entrance with the eroding cliffs to the north. Waves from the south and east have spread the drystone pier boulders into a linear mound along the original pier length that incorporated natural rocky islets. On the south side, the original exterior line of stones can be discerned showing the original structural style of the pier.

Drumanagh

Oblique aerial image the promontory fort at Drumanagh looking south west
Oblique aerial image the promontory fort at Drumanagh looking south west

The substantial promontory at Drumanagh was adapted in prehistoric times by the construction of a series of straight earthworks that cut off the promontory from the hinterland. The Discovery Programme as part of the ‘Late Iron Age and “Roman” Ireland’ project identified a D-shaped enclosure, circular ditch, rectangular enclosure and field ditch which is defined by a ditch located south of an 18th century field system. A number of possible pit-like features were interpreted along its circuit. There are 10 promontory recorded in county Dublin, with many other being explored by the CHERISH project due to their island locations in Dublin Bay

There is a Martello tower at the eastern end of the promontory, built in c.1804 as part of the Napoleanic Era defensive structures along the Irish coast. There are 25 martello towers located in County Dublin, and these and other forms of Napoleanic Era structures are common features within many of the CHERISH case study sites as they are often placed on prominent and strategic maritime locations.

Ireland’s Eye

Oblique aerial image of Ireland's Eye which contains a promontory fort and pre-Norman church
Oblique aerial image of Ireland's Eye which contains a promontory fort and pre-Norman church

Ireland’s Eye has a fascinating story to tell as it forms part of the Irish Sea chain of islands that have influenced trade, maritime movement patterns and interactions from prehistory through to modern times in the Irish Sea Zone. Today, much evidence of how past societies have interacted with the island can be seen in such examples as its prehistoric sites, Roman finds, early churches, historical accounts of monastic settlements and Viking raids, Napoleonic era defence towers and even murder mysteries. Ireland’s Eye sits off the north Dublin coast. Accretion is was the main coastal process in action along the western coast of the Island. Accretion is a process whereby there is a growth or increase in sediments due to additional materials being deposited. A hard coastline dominates the north, south and east of the Island.

Ireland’s Eye has a fascinating story to tell as it forms part of the Irish Sea chain of islands that have influenced trade, maritime movement patterns and interactions from prehistory through to modern times in the Irish Sea Zone. Today, much evidence of how past societies have interacted with the island can be seen in such examples as its prehistoric sites, Roman finds, early churches, historical accounts of monastic settlements and Viking raids, Napoleonic era defence towers and even murder mysteries. Ireland’s Eye sits off the north Dublin coast. Accretion is was the main coastal process in action along the western coast of the Island. Accretion is a process whereby there is a growth or increase in sediments due to additional materials being deposited. A hard coastline dominates the north, south and east of the Island.

The three sons of Nessan; Dicholla, Munissa, and Nadsluagh erected a church upon the island. The church is referred to as Kilmacnessan or St Nessan’s Church and the three brothers reputedly founded a monastery here in the 6thc AD. The sons of Nessan appear to have been holy men and some dates for its foundation appear to be about 570 AD. The garland of Howth, an illuminated gospel-book, now in Trinity College Dublin, is a remnant of the early monastery and suggests it was a wealthy foundation. Cochrane (1893) debates a 6thc origin for the church but believes it dates before 1235 AD when the church was transferred to the mainland. Ploughing exposed stone coffins in close proximity to the church in 1868, indicating an associated cemetery. A 12thc date is suggested for the church due to the nave and chancel church with a single entrance in the west wall. This is supported by the parallels with the Church of St Michael of Pole and the documentary evidence which dates it to pre 1235 AD. There is no visible evidence of the pre-Norman foundation, no cross-slabs, circular enclosure or architectural fragments. The church was heavily restored in the 19th century.

The Annals of the Four Masters says the island was besieged by Foreigners from Dublin in 897 AD and plundered in 960 AD (Gwynn & Hadcock, 1988). The Annals of the Four Master’s details how the in the late ninth century the Vikings made an encampment which was besieged by Irish forces. Whilst, in 960 AD a Viking fleet plundered the monastery. Another highly visible structure that dominates the north west of the island is a Martello tower. It was established on the Island in 1805/1806 AD as part of the Napoleonic era coastal defence system along the Irish coastline. Many of the visible man made alterations associated with the Islands are a by-product of this construction work, from the harbour on the north west of the Island to the pathways and way markers.

Bull Island

Geophysical survey of Bull Island was carried out to identify buried ship and boat timbers.
Geophysical survey of Bull Island was carried out to identify buried ship and boat timbers.

The island known as North Bull Island is constantly changing with the tidal and seasonal movement of sand bars, accretion and erosion. Several shipwrecks have been exposed and covered here. After a storm, it is usual to find loose ship timbers on the beach.Excavations have uncovered 7000-year old fish traps in the River Liffey estuary of Dublin. The Vikings built a town here in the 9th century trading slaves and oriental silks. Since the 16th century, historical records reveal at least 800 shipwrecks in Dublin Bay. This wrecking led to the North Wall construction by 1824 to protect these ships entering Dublin harbour. This changed the flow of sediment in the bay and led to the growth of a 5km-long sandy Bull Island.A file in the National Museum of Ireland records a corroded double-edged blade and tang iron sword found in sand near Dollymount in 1872. Dollymount Strand is the name of the beach on Bull Island. The sword is on display in the Viking section of the museum. Maps and charts from the 18th and 19th century show shipwrecks on the sand flats. In the 18th century, the South Wall battery fired upon shipwrecks plunderers with some jailed. Loose ship timbers and wooden shipwrecks periodically appear after storms on the sand flats and amongst shifting sand bars.

Intertidal survey by CHERISH is recording these shipwrecks on Bull Island when they appear and change after storms and seasonally. We are measuring beach profiles over the shipwrecks. Geophysics is determining the extent of buried sections of shipwrecks. LiDAR and mobile mapping from a vehicle are also surveying the 5km long beach.

Dalkey Islands

Oblique aerial image of Dalkey Islands which contains several sites and historical buildings
Oblique aerial image of Dalkey Islands which contains several sites and historical buildings

Dalkey sound acted as a natural harbour, the sound separates Dalkey Island from the Mainland. The activity on Dalkey draws parallels to Ireland’s Eye and the other Dublin Bay Islands. The island shows evidence of activity from the Mesolithic period onwards. Excavations in the 1950s by David Liversage on two shell midddens produced archaeological material from various such as Bell Beaker pottery from the later Neolithic whilst Roman finds of glass, beads and pottery show interaction in the Iron Age, this later material is possibly contemporary to the promontory fort on the Island.

Dalkey Island has a church, crosses, burials and a holy well. In the first few centuries of the early medieval period, Dalkey Island formed part of the area of the Uí Briúin Chualann who controlled a territory including the seaborne side of north Wicklow, Killiney Head and Dalkey Islands. Within this area, two churches dedicated to Saint Begnet were founded, one on Dalkey Island and the other in Dalkey town. While the surviving stone church of Saint Begnet’s in Dalkey town appears of a later design than the church on Dalkey Island

During the ninth century, the Scandinavian settlers of Dublin are believed to have controlled a territorial area from Lusk to Dalkey, and probably also controlled a significant maritime hinterland including all the Dublin islands. The immediate Hiberno-Norse association with the name Dalkey, suggested as a Norse translation of the Irish name ‘Deilginis’ or thorn/dagger island, possibly are present within the Annals of the Four Masters. Dublin functioned as an important centre for slave trading (Oftedal, 1976) and Dalkey Islands were part of the Dublin Hiberno-Norse kingdom of Dyflinaskiri. In addition to the use of Dalkey for holding slaves in the tenth century, the island also functioned as a refuge.

The Martello tower and associated gun battery were constructed c.1804-5, and the ownership of the island passed from the archbishop of Dublin to the Board of Ordnance who maintained the island as a military base throughout the nineteenth century, though cattle grazing rights continued to be granted. Walk over survey on the island recorded sediment exposures along the coastline of the island due to erosion and wave impact. Within these exposures a variety of artefacts types were identified from flint nodules to worked flints, iron concretions, slag, coal and North African pottery fragments.

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Ardaloedd Iwerddon

3. The Promontory Forts on Waterford’s Copper Coast

Woodstown, Co. Waterford

Erosion has remodelled many coastal promontory forts into stacks and separate promontories in Co. Waterford. These forts may have been originally built in the Iron Age though were occupied into the medieval period. They are fortifications, with banks and ditches separating them from the surrounding cliffs. A complex of over 29 promontory forts is between Tramore and Dungarvan, overlooking the Celtic Sea. This area includes the ‘Copper Coast’ named after mining evidenced by adits, shafts, spoil heaps, ore yards and engine houses.

Woodstown promontory fort is on the eastern side of Annestown Strand. The banks and ditches are under severe erosion today. The sea has split the promontory fort into small islets. At low tide, the largest of these islets called Green Island can be walked to from the shore. Erosion continues here with caves and sea tunnels found around the promontory, islets, stacks and stumps.

The fort overlooks the beach at Annestown. It has a double bank and ditch defence on its landward side. A causeway is on its eastern side. A standing stone was once in the field landward. A hut site has been identified on one of the islands from the UAV model undertaken by CHERISH. Geophysics has been undertaken landward. Further geophysics is being prepared for within the fort and islands. Soil samples for dating and identifying the purpose of these forts is to be collected. The methods will involve coring and eroding cliff section recording.

The enclosing ditch at Woodstown Promontory Fort, close to Annestown Beach, Co. Waterford
The double embankment at the entrance to Woodstown Promontory Fort, close to Annestown Beach, Co. Waterford

Islandhubbock, Co. Waterford

Islandhubbock has the highest cliffs of the Copper Coast in Co. Waterford. There are three promontory forts here with heights up to 70m at Ballyvoyle Head. Landward in the surrounding fields are early medieval raths or ringforts, ecclesiastical enclosures and ogham stones. The writing one ogham stone from around the 5fed century AD suggests the people who lived here are descendants of 1st-century BC King of Munster Nia Segaman.

One of the promontory forts has a hut site and underground passage called a souterrain. This fort has three ditches and two banks on its landward side. This suggests it is more important than other forts that only have one bank and ditch. The nearby two promontory forts at Ballyvoyle Head had a prominent landmark on the 19th-century Admiralty Charts. This was a Napoleonic watchtower. This would also have aided vessels passing this coast. Only a wall is still standing today. This tower reveals a significant maritime purpose for these forts as they would be able to observe the sea routes. CHERISH has recorded these forts by UAV and explored the access to the sea below.

Islandhubbock, Co. Waterfordserve the sea routes. CHERISH has recorded these forts by UAV and explored the access to the sea below.
 Islandhubbock Promontory Fort showing three banks at the entrance with Ballyvoyle Head in the background

Ballynarrid, Co. Waterford

There is a concentration of eight forts around Ballynarrid near Bunmahon in Co. Waterford. The Irish place names here include Illaunobrick and Templeobrick that mean Island of O’Bric and church of O’Bric respectively. The promontory fort of Illaunobrick is marked as Danes Island on maps. References to Danes suggests some people thought Vikings built this fort. However, the older Irish names remember an important family group, the O’Brics, who were early medieval kings in southern Waterford.

Today Illaunobrick is very difficult to reach due to erosion and is almost a sea stack. Templeobrick is a stack today. There is a local story that the O’Bric stronghold was on Templeobrick. Foundations of a building were still visible there in 1841. An entrenchment for the Illaunobrick promontory fort and three hut sites were marked on the Ordnance Survey map from this time. Today, there is only a narrow impassable isthmus to this island.

Silver and lead mining here in the 18th- and 19th centuries has left adits in the cliffs, and shafts in the fields. This has destabilised the cliffs increasing the erosion. Illaunobrick is too dangerous to reach so UAV has been used to photograph and model the eroding cliff edges. The location of three rectangular features on the island has been identified from the UAV model. These are where the grass is higher and lower and could be the hut sites loosely marked on the early Ordnance Survey map. Magnetometry landward of the forts is revealing further possible ‘castle’ features, mines and smelting areas. CHERISH want to do further resistivity geophysics here to determine if there are any buried stone walls associated with these features.

Illaunobrick at Ballynarrid, Co. Waterford
 Illaunobrick or Danes Island with the Templeobrick stack to the left

Dunabrattin, Co. Waterford

One of the larger promontory forts along the Copper Coast is located at Dunabrattin Head. It is 7.5ha. This contains within it a smaller promontory fort at only 0.16ha. Dunabrattin means fort of the Britons. This suggests there were close links with Britain during the Iron Age and early medieval period.

It is an important fishing area with people fishing off the rocks today. Boatstrand fishing harbour is nearby. A World War concrete pillbox is on the southern tip of the promontory. This shows the headland was an important observation post and location to monitor any landings at the nearby beaches. Slumping of the cliff of the smaller promontory fort and narrow gullies between islets indicates continuing erosion. Hut sites and enclosures probably associated with the construction of the promontory forts were reported in the 20th century. CHERISH could not identify these features during ground survey. Therefore, geophysics and UAV was undertaken. An outer ditch to the smaller promontory fort is in the geophysical dataset and walk over survey. Circular features suggest further enclosures within the larger fort.

 

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Ardaloedd Cymru

13. Castellmartin i Gwninger Stagbwll

13. Castellmartin i Gwninger Stagbwll

Map Lleoliad

Cyflwyniad

Mae’r arfordir rhwng Castellmartin a Chwninger Stagbwll yn adnabyddus am ei glogwyni calchfaen uchel, trawiadol lle adeiladwyd llawer o geyrydd pentir cynhanesyddol. Mae llawer o’r safleoedd hyn wedi dioddef yn y gorffennol o erydu arfordirol, gyda rhai wedi’u colli i’r môr yn llwyr erbyn hyn. Mae twyni tywod Cwninger Stagbwll yn eithriadol ddiddorol hefyd ac yn cynnwys gwybodaeth werthfawr am sut mae patrymau tywydd wedi newid yn y gorffennol a siapio’r dirwedd arfordirol rydym yn ei gweld heddiw. Hefyd mae’r twyni tywod wedi gorchuddio a gwarchod safleoedd archaeolegol pwysig o’r Oes Efydd a’r Oes Haearn.

Llun o’r awyr o arfordir Castellmartin.
Llun o’r awyr o arfordir Castellmartin.

Ceyrydd Pentir Castellmartin

Mae'r rhan hon o Sir Benfro wedi'i bendithio â digonedd o geyrydd pentir sy'n amrywio o safleoedd un ffos sengl i strwythurau mawr iawn. Mae llawer o'r safleoedd hyn wedi elwa o gael eu lleoli o fewn ffiniau maes ymarfer tanio Castellmartin lle maent bellach yn cael eu 'hamddiffyn' i bob pwrpas gan y fyddin. Fodd bynnag, er eu bod wedi'u diogelu'n dda rhag ymyrraeth ddynol, nid ydynt wedi'u diogelu cymaint rhag grymoedd byd natur sydd wedi cael effaith amlwg ar yr archaeoleg.
Caer Bentir Bae Trefflemin gyda’i ‘phair’ nodedig wedi'i erydu.
Caer Bentir Bae Trefflemin gyda’i ‘phair’ nodedig wedi'i erydu.

Yn yr ardal hon mae CHERISH yn monitro ac yn ymchwilio i bump o geyrydd pentir: Trwyn Linney, Bae Trefflemin, Crocksydam, Twyn Crickmail a Thwyn Buckspool. Mae pob un yn unigryw o ran natur y dirwedd a sut maent wedi cael eu hadeiladu. Drwy ddefnyddio cyfuniad o arolygon UAV ac arolygon gwrthgloddiau dadansoddol, mae CHERISH nid yn unig yn monitro erydiad diweddar ond hefyd yn ymchwilio i rai o'r cwestiynau archaeolegol niferus nad oedd wedi ceisio eu hateb o’r blaen.

Ceir hefyd safle Cors Castellmartin sy'n wlybdir yn y cwm sydd wedi cael ei ddylanwadu'n gryf gan systemau tywydd arfordirol a thwyni tywod symudol, mawr sy'n symud yn raddol i mewn am y tir. Mae CHERISH wedi creiddio'r gwlybdir ac wedi adfer craidd o waddodion sy'n dyddio'n ôl tua 5000 o flynyddoedd. Drwy ddefnyddio'r dechneg hon, y gobaith yw y gellir nodi patrymau amledd a dwysedd stormydd yn y cofnod biolegol a geogemegol er mwyn gwella'r ddealltwriaeth o newid yn yr hinsawdd yn y presennol a'r dyfodol.
Caer bentir Trwyn Linney.
Caer bentir Trwyn Linney.

Cwninger Stagbwll

Yn nwyrain ardal y prosiect mae system helaeth o dwyni tywod o’r enw Cwninger Stagbwll. Yn anarferol, mae’r twyni hyn ar ben clogwyni calchfaen uchel sy’n codi i tua 20m uwch ben lefel y môr. Mae gan y Gwninger dystiolaeth archaeolegol gyfoethog am breswylio yma rhwng y Cyfnod Mesolithig a’r Cyfnod Rhufeinig. Mae gwaith cloddio wedi dangos bod y tywod wedi cael ei symud mewn o leiaf ddau gyfnod nodedig, y tro cyntaf tua diwedd yr Oes Efydd ac wedyn symudiad tywod ysbeidiol yn ystod yr Oes Haearn i’r Cyfnod Rhufeinig Brydeinig.

Mae CHERISH wedi adfer creiddiau o dair ardal ar Gwninger Stagbwll, a fydd yn cael eu dyddio gan ddefnyddio Goleuedd a Ysgogir yn Optegol (OSL) i wella ein dealltwriaeth o pryd digwyddodd y digwyddiadau symud tywod hyn. Efallai y bydd hefyd yn bosibl penderfynu ar amserlen y dyddodi tywod. Drwy'r gwaith hwn, mae CHERISH yn gobeithio ysgogi gwerthfawrogiad ehangach o fywydau'r trigolion cynnar yn yr ardal hon, a'r heriau hinsoddol a wynebwyd ganddynt.

Y twyni tywod ar Gors Castellmartin.
Y twyni tywod ar Gors Castellmartin.

Pam rydym yn gweithio yma?

Mae erydu arfordirol wedi cael effaith amlwg ar yr archaeoleg yn y rhanbarth hwn lle mae cyfrannau mawr o safleoedd wedi disgyn i'r môr. Mae CHERISH yn gweithio yn yr ardal hon i ddarparu data sylfaen ar gyfer safleoedd nad ydynt wedi cael llawer o sylw gan archaeolegwyr yn y gorffennol. Bydd ymchwil archaeolegol a phaleoamgylcheddol yn llunio casgliadau ehangach hefyd am batrymau rhanbarthol o amrywioldeb hinsoddol yn y gorffennol yn ogystal â nodi'r prif brosesau sy'n achosi'r erydiad.

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Ardaloedd Cymru

12. Ynys Gwales, Ynys Sgomer a Phenrhyn Marloes

12. Ynys Gwales, Ynys Sgomer a Phenrhyn Marloes

Map Lleoliad

Cyflwyniad

Mae Ynys Gwales, Ynys Sgomer a Phenrhyn Marloes yn rhan bwysig o dirwedd arfordirol gynhanesyddol a hanesyddol unigryw de Sir Benfro. Mae arfordir Penrhyn Marloes hefyd yn enwog am longddrylliadau llongau’n teithio rhwng Iwerddon, de Cymru a de Lloegr.

Ynys Gwales ac Ynys Sgomer

Llun lletraws o'r awyr o Ynys Midland, Ynys Sgomer.
Llun lletraws o'r awyr o Ynys Midland, Ynys Sgomer.

Mae Ynys Gwales ac Ynys Sgomer yn ddwy ynys sy'n gyfoethog yn archaeolegol oddi ar arfordir gorllewinol penrhyn Marloes yn ne Sir Benfro. Ymhlith y miloedd o nythod huganod a thyllau palod sy'n gorchuddio’r ynysoedd mae olion strwythurau carreg dirgel, dirifedi, waliau cerrig sy’n rhyng-gysylltu, balciau wedi'u haredig a nodweddion archaeolegol eraill. Mae'r olion gweladwy’n cynrychioli pobl yn preswylio yma ac yn ffermio ar yr ynysoedd sy'n rhychwantu'r cyfnodau cynhanesyddol a chanoloesol. Mae ymchwil diweddar gan CHERISH wedi datgelu rhywfaint o ddirgelwch yr ynysoedd drwy archwilio a chofnodi eu harchaeoleg sy'n erydu.

Mae ymchwil archaeolegol wedi bod yn digwydd ar Sgomer ers 2011 ac mae’n cael ei wneud gan archaeolegwyr o'r Comisiwn Brenhinol, Prifysgol Sheffield a Phrifysgol Caerdydd fel rhan o Brosiect Sgomer. Un o brif gynhyrchion y prosiect oedd casglu data LiDAR 0.50cm ar gyfer yr ynys gyfan ac wedyn cynhaliwyd gwaith mapio archaeolegol. Arweiniodd y gwaith hwn at fapio systemau caeau dirifedi o'r Oes Efydd, yr Oes Haearn a'r cyfnod canoloesol, ac nid oedd llawer ohonynt yn hysbys o'r blaen. Yn ei hanfod, gosododd y gwaith hwn y blociau adeiladu yn eu lle ar gyfer casglu data LiDAR CHERISH am chwe ynys arall (gan gynnwys Ynys Gwales) yn 2017.

Llun o'r awyr o Ynys Gwales.
Llun o'r awyr o Ynys Gwales.

Dywed LiDAR survey of Grassholm allowed for the precise identification and mapping of all surviving prehistoric structures and field boundaries spread across the island. Based on this work several areas of interest were identified which were investigated during a 2019 visit by CHERISH. The main priority for the team was to undertake a rapid two-day evaluation excavation of a single stone-built structure towards the centre of the island that had become exposed due to the erosion of the previously overlying vegetation. A small segment of one of the structure’s walls was excavated to characterise the way in which it was constructed and to recover any possible artefactual evidence. The small part of the structure that was uncovered was very well-built, however, a lack of dating evidence made dating the structure extremely difficult.

Model Gweddlun Digidol (DEM) o Ynys Gwales wedi’i gynhyrchu o ddata LiDAR.
Model Gweddlun Digidol (DEM) o Ynys Gwales wedi’i gynhyrchu o ddata LiDAR.

Penrhyn Marloes

Mae penrhyn Marloes yn gartref i draethau hardd, clogwyni trawiadol a dyfrffyrdd peryglus. Mae'r arfordir trawiadol wedi'i fritho â detholiad gwych o geyrydd pentir cynhanesyddol ac aneddiadau arfordirol sy'n manteisio'n llawn ar y topograffeg naturiol yn ogystal â sawl llongddrylliad sy'n ein hatgoffa o berygl y môr. Mae CHERISH yn ymchwilio i un llongddrylliad penodol o'r enw 'The Albion' sydd wedi'i leoli ar Draeth Albion i'r de orllewin o Farloes. Adeiladwyd y stemar bren ym Mryste yn 1831 gan General S P Company i gludo pobl a nwyddau rhwng Bryste a Dulyn. Yn 1837 gorfodwyd capten y llong i newid llwybr er mwyn osgoi taro cwch rhwyfo gyda phedwar dyn ar ei fwrdd. Achosodd y newid cyfeiriad a grym y llanw i'r Albion daro craig a orfododd y llong i ddod i'r tir ym Marloes. Mae'r llongddrylliad bellach yn cael ei fonitro gan CHERISH i ddadansoddi sut mae stormydd yn dylanwadu ar symudiad tywod wrth i'r llongddrylliad ddod i’r golwg a chael ei orchuddio.
Gwahanol elfennau safle llongddrylliad yr Albion sy’n cynnwys sgwrfa stormydd (1), gweddillion y boeler (2), crancsiafft (3) ffon piston (4), a’r ffrâm sy’n dal y crancsiafft.
Gwahanol elfennau safle llongddrylliad yr Albion sy’n cynnwys sgwrfa stormydd (1), gweddillion y boeler (2), crancsiafft (3) ffon piston (4), a’r ffrâm sy’n dal y crancsiafft.

Pam rydym yn gweithio yma?

Er bod yr ardal hon yn arwyddocaol yn archaeolegol, ychydig rydym yn ei wybod am safleoedd yr arfordir a'r ynys. Mae ymchwil archaeolegol a gynhaliwyd gan CHERISH yn dechrau rhoi sylw i rai o'r bylchau hyn yn yr wybodaeth ac yn datgelu rhai o straeon archaeolegol yr arfordir hanesyddol bwysig hwn. Hefyd, mae data pwysig sy’n cael eu casglu gan y prosiect (fel data LiDAR, UAV a GNSS) yn darparu set ddata sylfaen bwysig y gellir ei defnyddio yn y dyfodol i fonitro newidiadau posibl ar hyd yr arfordir.

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Ardaloedd Cymru

11. Porth y Rhaw

11. Porth y Rhaw

Map Lleoliad

Cyflwyniad

Porth y Rhaw yw un o'r ceyrydd pentir mwyaf trawiadol yn Sir Benfro ond mae wedi'i herydu'n drwm. Mae'r gaer ar safle cymharol ddisylw ar ddarn hynod ysgythrog ac wedi erydu o’r arfordir tua 1.1km i'r gorllewin o Solfach. Wedi'i guddio yng nghanol pentiroedd, clogwyni a chilfachau bach eraill dirifedi, mae'r safle'n manteisio ar bentir naturiol serth sydd wedi'i gerflunio i greu cyfres o ragfuriau a ffosydd sy'n wynebu am y tir. Mae arolygon archaeolegol a gwaith cloddio wedi datgelu bod Porth y Rhaw wedi’i adeiladu a bod pobl wedi dod i fyw iddo yn ystod cyfnod cynnar yr Oes Haearn – cyfnod Rhufeinig Prydeinig (800CC – 400 OC) - ond mae tystiolaeth yn awgrymu nad oedd pobl yn byw ar y safle drwy gydol y cyfnod hwnnw. Cafodd yr amddiffynfeydd eu hailfodelu hefyd, o leiaf bum gwaith mae’n bur debyg, gan adlewyrchu newidiadau amrywiol yn swyddogaeth y safle yn ystod ei hanes hir.
Llun o'r awyr o Borth y Rhaw. I’w gweld mae cyfres o gloddiau a ffosydd sy'n amgáu'r hafn canolog sydd wedi'i erydu a'r pentir dwyreiniol.
Llun o'r awyr o Borth y Rhaw. I’w gweld mae cyfres o gloddiau a ffosydd sy'n amgáu'r hafn canolog sydd wedi'i erydu a'r pentir dwyreiniol.

Pam rydym yn gweithio yma?

Mae erydu arfordirol wedi cael effaith amlwg iawn ar Borth y Rhaw sydd wedi dylanwadu ar y safle dros filoedd o flynyddoedd. Mae CHERISH yn gweithio ar y safle i ddarparu data 3D gwrthrychol ar gyfer monitro erydiad ac i ddeall ymhellach yr archaeoleg dan fygythiad sydd ar y safle. Mae ymchwil archaeolegol manwl wedi tynnu sylw at y ffaith nad ffenomenon fodern yw erydiad gweladwy o bell ffordd, gyda'r adeiladwyr yn parchu'r hafn canolog enfawr sydd wedi erydu drwy adeiladu'r amddiffynfeydd o'i amgylch. Awgrymodd dehongliadau blaenorol fod yr hafn wedi ffurfio i raddau helaeth ar ôl i'r safle gael ei adeiladu. 

Ymddiriedolaeth Archaeolegol Dyfed yn cloddio'r fynedfa fewnol ym Mhorth y Rhaw yn 2019.
Ymddiriedolaeth Archaeolegol Dyfed yn cloddio'r fynedfa fewnol ym Mhorth y Rhaw yn 2019.

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